db_recover [-cv] [-h home]


       The  db_recover  utility  must  be run after an unexpected
       application, DB, or system failure to restore the database
       to  a  consistent  state.   All committed transactions are
       guaranteed to appear after db_recover  has  run,  and  all
       uncommitted transactions will be completely undone.

       The options are as follows:

       -c   Failure was catastrophic.

       -h   Specify a home directory for the database.

       -v   Run in verbose mode.

       In  the case of catastrophic failure, an archival copy, or
       ``snapshot'' of all database files must be restored  along
       with  all of the log files written since the database file
       snapshot was made.  (If disk space is a problem, log files
       may   be  referenced  by  symbolic  links).   For  further
       information on creating  a  database  snapshot,  see  ``DB
       ARCHIVAL PROCEDURES'' in db_archive(1).

       If  the failure was not catastrophic, the files present on
       the system at  the  time  of  failure  are  sufficient  to
       perform recovery.

       If  log  files  are  missing, db_recover will identify the
       missing log file(s) and fail, in which  case  the  missing
       log  files  need  to  be  restored  and recovery performed

       The  db_recover  utility  attaches  to  DB  shared  memory
       regions.   In  order to avoid region corruption, it should
       always be given the chance to detach and exit  gracefully.
       To  cause  db_recover  to  clean up after itself and exit,
       send it an interrupt signal (SIGINT).

       The db_recover utility exits 0 on success, and  >0  if  an
       error occurs.


       Filesystem   operations,   e.g.,   moving   the   database
       environment to  a  different  machine  or  file  creation,
       deletion  or  renaming,  cannot  be transaction protected.
       For this reason, db_recover cannot  re-create,  delete  or
       rename files as part of recovery.

       If  db_recover  cannot  find a database file referenced in
       the log, it will output a  warning  message  that  it  was
       unable to locate a file it expected to find.  This message
       is only a warning, as the file may have subsequently  been
       deleted  as  part of normal database operations before the
       failure occurred.  Note that committed  transactions  that
       involved  these  missing  files  are  rolled forward, even
       though the files were not found.  If the  files  were  not
       intentionally  deleted  (e.g., they were created after the
       last database snapshot, but were lost during  a  failure),
       they  must  be  manually  created  (using db_open(3)), and
       db_recover must be rerun.

       Generally, it is simplest to perform filesystem operations
       at the same time as making a snapshot of the database.  To
       perform filesystem operations:

              1.   Cleanly shutdown database operations.
              2.   Rename, create or delete files.
              3.   Make a snapshot of the database.
              4.   Restart database applications.

       To cleanly shutdown database operations, all  applications
       accessing  the  database environment must be shutdown.  If
       the applications are not implemented such that they can be
       shutdown  gracefully  (i.e., closing all references to the
       database environment), db_recover must be  run  after  all
       applications   have   been   killed  to  ensure  that  the
       underlying database is consistent and flushed to disk.


       After an application or  system  failure,  there  are  two
       possible  approaches to database recovery.  If there is no
       need to retain state across the failure, and all databases
       can  be  started  anew,  the  database  home directory can
       simply be removed and recreated.  If it  is  necessary  to
       retain   persistent   state   across  failures,  then  the
       db_recover(1)  utility  should  be   run   for   each   DB
       application   environment,   i.e.,   each   database  home

       The db_recover utility will remove all the shared  regions
       (which  may have been corrupted by the failure), establish
       the end of the log by identifying the last record  written
       to   the  log,  and  then  perform  transaction  recovery.
       Database applications must not be restarted until recovery
       completes.   During transaction recovery, all changes made
       by aborted transactions are undone and all changes made by
       committed  transactions  are  redone, as necessary.  After
       recovery runs, the environment is properly initialized  so
       that   applications   may   be  restarted.   Any  time  an
       application crashes or the system fails, db_recover should
       be run on any exiting database environments.

       Additionally,  there  are  two  forms  of recovery: normal
       recovery  and  catastrophic  recovery.   The  DB   package
       defines  catastrophic  failure  to be failure where either
       the database or log files have been destroyed or corrupted
       from  the  point  of view of the filesystem.  For example,
       catastrophic failure includes  the  case  where  the  disk
       drive  on which either the database or logs are stored has
       crashed, or when filesystem recovery is  unable  to  bring
       the  database  and  log  files  to a consistent state with
       respect  to  the  filesystem.   If  the  failure  is  non-
       catastrophic,   i.e.,  the  database  files  and  log  are
       accessible on a filesystem  that  has  recovered  cleanly,
       db_recover  will  review  the  logs  and database files to
       ensure that all committed transactions appear and that all
       uncommitted  transactions  are  undone.  If the failure is
       catastrophic, a snapshot of the  database  files  and  the
       archived log files must be restored onto the system.  Then
       db_recover will review the  logs  and  database  files  to
       bring the database to a consistent state as of the date of
       the last archived log file.  Only  transactions  committed
       before  that  date  will  appear  in  the  database.   See
       db_archive (1) for specific  information  about  archiving
       and recovering databases after catastrophic failure.


       The  following  environment variables affect the execution
       of db_recover:

            If the -h option is not specified and the environment
            variable  DB_HOME  is  set, it is used as the path of
            the database home, as described in db_appinit(3).


       Future  versions  of  DB  are  expected  to   remove   the
       restriction  that  database files must be manually created
       before recovery is performed.


       The DB library is a family of  groups  of  functions  that
       provides  a  modular programming interface to transactions
       and record-oriented file  access.   The  library  includes
       support  for  transactions, locking, logging and file page
       caching, as well as various indexed access methods.   Many
       of  the  functional  groups  (e.g.,  the file page caching
       functions)  are  useful  independent  of  the   other   DB
       functions,  although some functional groups are explicitly
       based on other functional groups (e.g.,  transactions  and
       logging).   For  a  general description of the DB package,
       see db_intro(3).

       db_archive(1), db_checkpoint(1), db_deadlock(1), db_dump(1),
       db_load(1), db_recover(1), db_stat(1), db_intro(3),
       db_appinit(3), db_cursor(3), db_dbm(3), db_internal(3),
       db_lock(3), db_log(3), db_mpool(3), db_open(3), db_thread(3),

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